Best industrial practices for capturing soot and carbon emissions
Soot is a black powdery or chipped substance comprising mainly of amorphous carbon, formed by the partial burning of organic matter. There are many upcoming technologies that hold the potential of trapping up to 90% of the carbon dioxide emissions from power stations and industrial sites. It includes collecting, transporting and then burying the CO2 so that it does not leak into the atmosphere and add to climate change. Following are the best current practices of capturing soot from power plants and industrial sites.
CO2 is parted from the flue gas of the power station by bubbling the gas through an absorber column filled with ammonia that specially take out the CO2. In the most commonly-used methods, once the chemicals in the absorber column become saturated, a stream of superheated steam at nearly 120°C is passed through it. This releases the entrapped CO2, which can then be transported for storage in another place.
The technique is to burn the fossil fuel in an atmosphere of pure oxygen. In this environment, almost all the waste gas will be composed to CO2 and water vapour. The later can be condensed out while the former can be piped or transported straight to a storage facility.
In the oxyfuel system, the air served into the boiler has to be divided into liquid oxygen, gaseous nitrogen, argon and other trace gases and this procedure can use up to 15% of the power produced at the station.
This is generally applied to coal-gasification joint cycle power plants. The coal is gasified to yield a synthetic gas made from carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The former is reacted with water to yield CO2, which is captured along with hydrogen. The hydrogen can be averted to a turbine where it can be burned to yield electricity. Otherwise, some of this gas can be bled off to feed hydrogen fuel cells for cars.
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