V2V COMMUNICATION AND PLATOONING
Personify a life of a vehicle and think about how humans and automobiles can communicate to avoid so many dangerous mishaps. Imagine where vehicles communicate among themselves and then inform them about the succeeding road ahead.
Well, how revolutionary this technology sounds today, a vehicle to vehicle communication is prevalent in our midst and the future possibilities are just around the corner. V2V consists of a wireless network where vehicles send and receive information to each other about their status. V2V augments sensors and computer vision with non-line of sight awareness effectively allowing cars to see around intersections well beyond driver’s visual horizon. Wi-Fi-based 802.11p/DSRC had established the foundation for latency critical vehicle-based communication. Next up is cellular vehicle-based communication which will not only enhance safety but also increase situational awareness and more autonomous driving.
V2V COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL
V2V is a short-range technology which uses a wireless protocol similar to Wi-Fi called Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC). When DSRC device is combined with GPS technology the result is a low-cost communication device that provides a 360-degree view of similarly equipped vehicles within the communication range.
DSRC has a limited range of 300-500 meters and works in all weather conditions. The transmitted messages are common to all vehicle which include each vehicles current GPS position, vehicle speed, acceleration and the direction of heading. It also contains vehicle control information such as transmission state, brake status, steering wheel angle as well as vehicles path history and path prediction. With path history and path predictions, the vehicle is essentially being provided with a dynamic map of roadway geometry ahead, essential information for performing a threat assessment and predicting potential crashes. All vehicles communicate in the same way so each automotive manufacturer is free to develop their own safety applications and warning indicators. When a mishap is predicted the vehicle will provide a warning to the driver either by seat vibration, tone or visuals (NOTE: The system only provides the warning and all the indications, the driver will still remain in control of the vehicle and the system will not operate the vehicle at any given point).
Applications of V2V:
- Emergency Electronic Brake Lights (EEBL) –In unforeseen circumstances, if the driver of a car in the path ahead applies hard brakes then the EEBL lets you know about it. It can also be helpful in the following scenario suppose if three cars were travelling in a line and you are driving the last vehicle. You can’t see the first vehicle. If the first vehicle has a V2V system and so do you then if the first vehicle applies hard brakes then you will be notified about it well in time.
- Blind Spot Warning (BSW)- If a vehicle is positioned in a driver’s blind spot while driving then due to V2V communication a blind spot advisory will be issued to you. Should you attempt a lane change this advisory will turn into a warning.
- Lane Change Warning (LCW) – If a driver intends to change lanes into a zone that will soon be occupied by a fast moving vehicle then using V2V communication the system predicts the direction of the other vehicle giving you a warning that the lane change should not be attempted right now.
- Forward Collision Warning (FCW)– It is intended to warn the driver of a potential rear-end crash. If you are in a fast moving vehicle and the vehicle ahead is moving slowly. In that case, due to V2V communication, you will be given a signal to slow down seeing the condition of the leading vehicle. Now consider the vehicle ahead of you has stopped due to some reason, the vehicle directly in front of you makes a late lane change around the stopped vehicle. Even though you cannot see the stopped vehicle owing to V2V communication you would be informed well ahead of time about the stopped vehicle.
- Do Not Pass Warning (DNPW) –It is a safety application intended to let the driver know that it is not safe to overtake a slower moving vehicle because of the oncoming traffic in the passing zone. An advisory is given first but should you attempt the manoeuvre it will turn into a warning.
- Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) -It is a safety application intended to warn the driver when it is not safe to enter an intersection because of a high probability of a potential crash with a vehicle on the adjacent approach to the same intersection from either of the sides.
- Left Turn Assist (LTA) –It is intended to warn the driver when the left turn is not safe because of the oncoming traffic.
Shortcomings of V2V
- The standard of a vehicle to vehicle communication is still not set in stone which implies there is not enough technological support for these V2V devices to thrive in.
- If there are numerous cars in proximity, the bandwidth is not large enough to support V2V as it cannot pass a large number of signals in such a short amount of time.
- We face the challenge of using a low-cost GPS to create high accuracy for consumer supply.
- Like any other wireless network, even V2V technology can be hacked and can be used maliciously.
- Security system established should be strong enough to protect a person’s privacy and authenticity.
- Since the data and information of one vehicle are linked with the other one, so an error in one can affect the other vehicles too.
It is the linking of two or more vehicles in convoy, using connectivity technology and automated driving support systems. We usually do it for a bunch of trucks. The trucks drive close behind one another for efficient utilisation of roads. It saves time and reduces air drag forces and fuel consumption by 20%. The vehicles are linked to one another using 802/11p technology. Additionally, the vehicles have to be equipped with piloted systems to work autonomously. If any obstacle is detected it automatically applies brakes in the trucks at the same time. The distance between the trucks is optimised to reduce the air drag which in turn alters the aerodynamics that reduces the resistance and hence we save fuel for the trucks. The vehicles communicate with radar, GPS and Wi-Fi. The leading vehicle determines the speed, position and the route. If the leading vehicle takes an evasive manoeuvre then the remaining vehicles react at the same time. The driver is always steering and controlling the vehicle. Platooning is only done seeing the conditions of road, weather and traffic.
Disadvantages of Platooning
- Any error in sensors can cause dangerous mishaps and fatal accidents to happen.
- Truck Platooning is dependent on autonomous technology which is still in its testing phase. The government of Missouri has banned the use of platooning due to its unsafe standards.
- Platooning requires technological advancements and proper infrastructure for its operation, which hasn’t been developed in most parts of the world.
- Cost of building platooning technology is remarkably high
- If a vehicle in exit highways or areas like that gets in between the platooning vehicles then it will impede the process of platooning.
Road Safety is of utmost importance and hence these technological devices need to be designed by keeping the safety of other shared road users in mind. As the vehicles are going to get automated the risk of hacking and breaching security code will increase but with increased encryption of data and appropriate security standards the V2V technology is a boon to the society. If scientists manage to overcome the drawbacks of V2V then it is predicted that we might see them on road as soon as 2020 which also happens to be the timeframe for fully automated cars hence you can expect V2V and self-driving going hand in hand. Currently, it’s a prototype but with the magnification of the technology on the large scale, it is definitely the future of tomorrow and the generations to come.
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